Cerebral palsy/traumatic brain injury

These athletes have damage to the central nervous system. When the injury occurs in children under age two, the term cerebral palsyDefinition: Damage to the central nervous system. (common types include diplegia and hemiplegiaDefinition: A permanent, congenital (existing at birth) condition in which you are partially or totally unable to move one vertical side of the body, usually due to disease of or injury to the motor centers of the brain.) is often used, but the condition also can be due to brain injury (for example, stroke or trauma) or multiple sclerosisDefinition: A disease of the brain and spinal cord where the immune system eats away at the protective covering of nerves, causing communication problems between the brain and the rest of the body. Commonly called MS..


Three specific conditions are most prevalent among Paralympians:


HypertoniaDefinition: Abnormal increase in muscle tension that reduces the ability of a muscle to stretch.

Abnormal increase in muscle tension and a reduced ability of a muscle to stretch.


AtaxiaDefinition: A lack of muscle control during voluntary movements.

Lack of coordination of muscle movements.


AthetosisDefinition: Condition in which abnormal muscle contractions cause involuntary writhing.

Motor dysfunction characterized by unbalanced, involuntary muscle movements and difficulty maintaining a symmetrical posture.